Saponification is a chemical reaction between oil and lye when making soap. Once it's complete there's no lye left in the mixture.
It’s important to follow, proven, soap recipes. Each type of oil requires a different amount of lye to produce the complete reaction. There should be no substituting oils in ANY soap recipe. Use the exact oil specified. If you want to use different oils then the amount of lye will be different too. Each soap making oil has a specific saponification value. The value specifies the number of lye molecules needed to turn a molecule of oil into soap.
Leave just a few molecules of oil, unsaponified, so we know all of the lye has been reacted with the oil. CAUTION! If there's extra lye left in the soap, it will be harsh and will damage your skin. Allow up to three weeks for homemade soap to cure, before using it.
When making homemade soap consider saponification values for homemade bar soap, (NaOH) and homemade liquid soap, (KOH).
The saponification chart, (shown below), lists various oils and properties. There are two facts to consider before using this chart, determining varying outcomes. Your mileage can vary making goat milk soap.
— The size of your soap batch
— You are adding goat milk to your soap recipes
SOAP MAKING NOTE #1: Homemade soaps are formulated with a combination of emollient oils and butters, with lathering oils. For example, Olive and Avocado are popular emollient oils. Cocoa and Shea butters are wonderful! Coconut and Palm Kernel oils are super for lathering. All of these oils are mixed with liquid saturated lye.
SOAP MAKING NOTE #2: Essential oils are concentrated. They carry a distinctive fragrance or "essence" from the object from which they were extracted; plant, leaves, peel or flower. Essential oils must always be diluted in carrier oil, soap, lotion or other buffering agent. Never use large amounts externally or internally. Never use them straight.
(All values are converted into ounces)
Y: Yes --- N: No
FL: Fluffy Lather --- SL: Stable Lather
NaOH: Sodium hydroxide; Homemade Bar Soap
KOH: Postassium hydroxide; Homemade Liquid Soap
|Oils for Making Soap||Hard Bar||Lathering||Conditioning||NaOH||KOH|
||.134 oz.||.188 oz.|
|Avocado||.132 oz.||.186 oz.|
|Babassu||.176 oz.||.248 oz.|
|Camellia||.134 oz.||.189 oz.|
|Castor||.127 oz.||.179 oz.|
|Ultra Ref. Cocoa Butter||.136 oz.||.192 oz.|
|Organic Coconut||High % - dry||.178 oz.||.252 oz.|
|Emu||.135 oz.||.191 oz.|
|Flaxseed||.135 oz.||.190 oz.|
|Grape Seed||.134 oz.||.188 oz.|
|Kukui Nut||.135 oz.||.191 oz.|
|Lard||.141 oz.||.199 oz.|
|Macadamia Nut||.137 oz.||.193 oz.|
|Palm Kernel||.178 oz.||.250 oz.|
|Pumpkin Seed||.134 oz.||.189 oz.|
|Rice Bran||.133 oz.||.188 oz.|
|Rose Hip||.133 oz.||.187 oz.|
|Safflower||.135 oz.||.190 oz.|
|Shea Butter||.126 oz.||.178 oz.|
|Soy Oil||.134 oz.||.188 oz.|
|Sunflower Seed||.134 oz.||.189 oz.|
|Tamanu||.148 oz.||.208 oz.|
|Walnut||.136 oz.||.192 oz.|
|Wheat Germ||.135 oz.||.190 oz.|
SOAP MAKING OIL - (Properties and Lather)
The following acidic ingredients, in soap making oils, promote different properties. Consider the % of each acidic ingredient, for making the proper choice.
Linoleic Acid & Oleic Acid: Conditioning
Lauric Acid & Myristic Acid: Hard Bar, Fluffy Lather
Ricinoleic Acid: Conditioning, Fluffy & Stable Lather
Palmitic Acid & Stearic Acid: Hard Bar, Stable Lather